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Vedic Sanskrit is known to form the pre-classical form of Sanskrit. The previous confirmed Sanskrit text is the Rigveda, a Hindu scripture, from the mid-to-late second time BCE. There is no written record for such an early period survive, if anyone existed ever, then also the scholar is confident about the oral transmission of the text is consistent.

It is formal literature, where the accurate phonetic expression and its preservation are part of the historic tradition. Collection of books is a Rigveda, created by multiple authors from different parts of ancient India. These authors denoted diverse generation, and the mandalas 2 to 7 are the first whereas the mandalas 1 and 10 are comparatively the youngest.

Still, the Vedic Sanskrit in these books of the Rigveda “scarcely presents any dialectical diversity”, stated Louis Renou an Indologist popular for his scholarship of the Sanskrit literature and the Rigveda in particular. This implies that the Vedic Sanskrit language had a “set linguistic pattern” by the second half of the 2nd millennium BCE, according to Renou.

Not only Rigveda the ancient literature in Vedic Sanskrit that has continued into the modern age contains the Samaveda, Yajurveda, Atharvaveda, along with the embedded and covered texts such as the Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and the first Upanishads. This document of Vedic has reflected the dialects of Sanskrit found in several parts of the north-western, northern, and eastern Indian subcontinent.

Vedic Sanskrit was both a spoken and literary language of ancient India. Vedic Sanskrit was a spoken language of the semi-nomadic Aryas who use to settle for temporarily in one place, maintained their cattle herds, practiced limited agriculture, and after some time moved by wagon train they named grama, according to Michael Witzel. This language is closely related to the Indo-European variant was identified beyond ancient India as proved by the “Mitanni Treaty” among the ancient Hittite and Mitanni people, sculpt into a rock, in a country that is now parts of Syria and Turkey.

Portions for this treaty such as the name of the Mitanni princes and technical terms related to the horse, for a reason not understood, are the initial form of Vedic Sanskrit. The treaty raises the god Varuna, Mitra, Indra, and Nasatya found in the previous layers of the Vedic literature.

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